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What Is the Difference between Formal Parameters and Actual Parameters
What Is the Difference between Formal Parameters and Actual Parameters? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions Formal parameter and actual parameter are two different terms related parameters used in the procedures and functions: A formal parameter is a term used to ref...
2007-04-25, 6654👍, 0💬

What Is the Order of Defining Local Variables and Sub Procedures/Functions
What Is the Order of Defining Local Variables and Sub Procedures/Functions? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions In the declaration part, you must define all local variables before defining any sub procedures or sub functions. See the following sample script: SQL> CRE...
2007-04-25, 5005👍, 0💬

How Many Anonymous Blocks Can Be Defined
How Many Anonymous Blocks Can Be Defined? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Introduction to PL/SQL An anonymous block is stored in the user's current session without any name. So you can only define one anonymous block at any time. If you define another anonymous block, the new block will replace the previously de...
2007-04-25, 4558👍, 0💬

How To Run the Anonymous Block Again
How To Run the Anonymous Block Again? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Introduction to PL/SQL If you have an anonymous block defined in your session, you can run it any time by using the "/" command as shown in the following script: SQL> set serveroutput on; SQL> begin 2 dbms_output.put_line('This is a PL/SQL FAQ...
2007-04-25, 4883👍, 0💬

How To Use "IN" Parameter Properly
How To Use "IN" Parameter Properly? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions Here are the rules about IN parameters: A formal IN parameter acts like constant. It can not be assigned with new values. An actual IN parameter can take a value or a variable. An actual IN param...
2007-04-25, 4957👍, 0💬

What Are the Parameter Modes Supported by PL/SQL
What Are the Parameter Modes Supported by PL/SQL? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions PL/SQL supports 3 parameter modes on procedure/function parameters: IN: This is the default mode. IN parameters allow the calling code to pass values into the procedure or function....
2007-04-25, 6588👍, 0💬

What Are the Types PL/SQL Code Blocks
What Are the Types PL/SQL Code Blocks? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Introduction to PL/SQL There are 3 types of PL/SQL code blocks: Anonymous Block - A block of codes with no name. It may contain a declaration part, an execution part, and exception handlers. Stored Program Unit - A block of codes with a name....
2007-04-25, 4548👍, 0💬

How To Define an Anonymous Block
How To Define an Anonymous Block? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Introduction to PL/SQL An anonymous block must have an execution part, which is a group of other PL/SQL statements enclosed in the BEGIN ... END statement. Here is a script on how to define a simple anonymous block with SQL*Plus: SQL> set serverou...
2007-04-25, 5149👍, 0💬

What Is PL/SQL
What Is PL/SQL? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Introduction to PL/SQL PL/SQL is a modern, block-structured programming language. It provides several features that make developing powerful database applications very convenient. For example, PL/SQL provides procedural constructs, such as loops and conditional sta...
2007-04-25, 4554👍, 0💬

How To Use "OUT" Parameter Properly
How To Use "OUT" Parameter Properly? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions Here are the rules about OUT parameters: A formal OUT parameter acts like an un-initialized variable. It must be assigned with new values before the end of the procedure or function. An actual O...
2007-04-21, 4823👍, 0💬

How To Use "IN OUT" Parameter Properly
How To Use "IN OUT" Parameter Properly? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions Here are the rules about IN OUT parameters: A formal IN OUT parameter acts like an initialized variable. An actual IN OUT parameter must be a variable. An actual IN OUT parameter passes a cop...
2007-04-21, 6360👍, 0💬

How To Define Default Values for Formal Parameters
How To Define Default Values for Formal Parameters? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions If you have an IN parameter, you can make it as an optional parameter for the calling statement by defining the formal parameter with the DEFAULT clause. This gives you the freedo...
2007-04-21, 4950👍, 0💬

What Are Named Parameters
What Are Named Parameters? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions Named parameters are actual parameters specified not by position but by providing formal parameter names when calling the procedure or function. The main advantage of named parameters is that the caller d...
2007-04-21, 6387👍, 0💬

What Is the Scope of a Local Variable
What Is the Scope of a Local Variable? - Oracle DBA FAQ - Creating Your Own PL/SQL Procedures and Functions The scope of a variable can be described with these rules: A variable is valid within the procedure or function where it is defined. A variable is also valid inside a sub procedure or function...
2007-04-21, 5283👍, 0💬

Examples of INSERT INTO Statements
Examples of INSERT INTO Statements INSERT INTO table_name VALUES (value1, value2,....) INSERT INTO table_name (column1, column2,...) VALUES (value1, value2,....)
2007-04-15, 4517👍, 0💬

When to Use SELECT INTO Statements
When to Use SELECT INTO Statements? The SELECT INTO Statement is most often used to create backup copies of tables or for archiving records. SELECT column_name(s) INTO newtable [IN externaldatabase] FROM source SELECT column_name(s) INTO newtable [IN externaldatabase] FROM source WHERE column_name o...
2007-04-15, 4610👍, 0💬

Sample SELECT Statements
Write some simple SELECT Statements SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s) FROM table_name SELECT column FROM table WHERE column operator value SELECT column FROM table WHERE column LIKE pattern SELECT column,SUM(column) FROM table GROUP BY column SELECT column,SUM(colu...
2007-04-15, 4584👍, 0💬

Operators used in SELECT statements
Name some operators used in SELECT statements = Equal or != Not equal > Greater than = Greater than or equal <= Less than or equal BETWEEN Between an inclusive range LIKE Search for a pattern
2007-04-15, 4599👍, 0💬

What Are DDL Statements
What are the most important DDL statements in SQL? CREATE TABLE - creates a new database table ALTER TABLE - alters (changes) a database table DROP TABLE - deletes a database table CREATE INDEX - creates an index (search key) DROP INDEX - deletes an index
2007-04-15, 4674👍, 0💬

What Is SQL*Loader
What Is SQL*Loader? SQL*Loader is a product for moving data in external files into tables in an Oracle database. To load data from external files into an Oracle database, two types of input must be provided to SQL*Loader: the data itself and the control file. The control file describes the data to b...
2007-04-15, 4865👍, 0💬

What Is Mutating Table
What Is Mutating Table? Mutating Table is a table that is currently being modified by an Insert, Update or Delete statement. Constraining Table is a table that a triggering statement might need to read either directly for a SQL statement or indirectly for a declarative Referential Integrity constrai...
2007-04-15, 4970👍, 0💬

What Is a Deadlock
What Is a Deadlock? Deadlock is a unique situation in a multi user system that causes two or more users to wait indefinitely for a locked resource. First user needs a resource locked by the second user and the second user needs a resource locked by the first user. To avoid dead locks, avoid using ex...
2007-04-15, 5190👍, 0💬

What Is Integrity?
What Is Integrity? Several points about data integrity: Assures database data and structures reflects all changes made to them in the correct sequence. Locks ensure data integrity and maximum concurrent access to data. Commit statement releases all locks. Types of locks are given below. Data Locks p...
2007-04-15, 5047👍, 0💬

What Is Consistency
What Is Consistency? Consistency : Assures users that the data they are changing or viewing is not changed until the are through with it.
2007-04-15, 4970👍, 0💬

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